Secondary School Teaching

1. Rationale

Many of the teaching and learning problems that have been ingrained in secondary schools remain very much part of the system. It is also a largely held public opinion; shared by regional education bureau leaders and other stakeholders, that teachers’ competence has not shown improvement albeit consecutive and overlapping efforts to address it (some claim it has become worse). Indeed, despite loud and clear achievements following the introduction of the teacher education system overhaul program (TESO), problems that currently characterize secondary schools are very much similar to those which TESO was meant to address. For example, the Ministry of Education (2009) indicated that the following are major problems.

  • Teachers’ subject matter competence is inadequate.
  • Active learning methods are not properly and sufficiently employed.
  • Professional commitment and work ethics are not demonstrated as desired.
  • Teachers’ interest to follow up and assist students is low.
  • School-community relationships are poor.


Interestingly, the reasons that initiated the TESO reform are very much similar to the current problems that characterize teacher education. For example, in introducing TESO, it was to be remembered that MOE (2003, p.43) outlined the following causes:

  • The professional competence of teachers is deficient.
  • The content knowledge of teachers is unsatisfactory.
  • The teaching skills and techniques are very basic.
  • Teachers do not match up to the standards and expectations of their professions.
  • Practicum receives inadequate emphasis and is insufficiently implemented.
  • The quality of courses and methods of teaching are theoretical and teacher centered.
  • There is lack of professionalism, and ethical values in Ethiopia teacher education program.


Needless to say that it is unrealistic to expect the TESO program to meet these problems when much of the input and process factors of teacher education remain unchanged. Indeed, studies on the TESO program indicated that TESO’s major problem has been lack of a clear plainspoken philosophical orientation that transpired in the program document, curriculum organization and delivery, and evaluation.  Moreover, lack of pedagogical and social feasibility, lack of coherence among program elements, and simultaneous reforms/changes that cannot be dovetailed are indicated as the Achilles heels of TESO. Notwithstanding these problems, TESO has planted very well the culture of school and teacher education partnerships and the relevance of active learning and continuous assessment though the notions seem to be abused due to enculturation problems and misconceptions. Hence to alleviate problems TESO could not solve the new approach to preparation of secondary school teachers- Postgraduate Diploma for Teachers came into being after a serious study was conducted by a task force composed of several stakeholders.

2. Program Goals

  • The Ethiopian Secondary school Teacher Education Program is committed to producing secondary school teachers who have the desired academic knowledge, sufficient professional skills, good citizenship, attitudes and skills, and those ethical and democratic values enshrined in the Ethiopian Constitution.
  • Ethiopian Secondary school teacher Education program promotes reflective and social pragmatic principles and practices of teaching and learning
  • The Ethiopian Secondary school Teacher Education Program undertakes relevant research, creates and leads transparent, democratic and cost effective institutional behavior
  • The Ethiopian Secondary school Teacher Education Program strives to ensure equity in education.
  • Ethiopian Secondary school Teacher Education Program endeavors for the successful implementation of Ethiopia’s short and long-term plans of providing quality secondary education for all appropriate age group.


3. Program Objectives

The Ethiopian Secondary school teacher education is intended to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Equip trainees with the knowledge, skills and dispositions required to become effective secondary school teachers;
  2. Enable trainees to become reflective practitioners who are able to analyze, evaluate and act to improve their own practice and develop further professional knowledge and skills;
  3. Develop understanding of the nature of teacher professionalism, the responsibilities of teachers and the professional values and ethical practice expected of them;
  4. Create awareness that a central characteristic of teaching as a career is engagement in a lifelong process of professional learning and development;
  5. Develop trainees' capacity to engage in research to inform and develop their practice.
  6. Institutionalize equity in the teaching force and reach underprivileged areas in the provision of quality secondary education.
  7. Provide teacher trainees with the theoretical and practical experience they need to achieve all the standards and competencies set by Ministry of Education

4. Program Requirements

 4.1. Admission Requirements

  • B.Sc or BA in areas directly related to secondary school subjects
  • A pass mark in interview and entrance examination
  • Teaching profession ethical standards will be considered during selection


4.2. Duration

       PGDT in the regular program takes 10 months running from September to June

4.3. Graduation requirements

  • Pass in all the courses (no ‘F’)
  • Should score at least ‘C’ in Subject Methodology and Practicum
  • Should present a portfolio that demonstrate his/her development throughout the training the judgment of which shall add to the result of the student teaching practice

4.4 Medium of Instruction